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A Selected Bibliography

The following bibliography is available for download in a PDF file. Some books listed here have a direct link to their corresponding page on Amazon.Com's service to read more about the book or to purchase the book. The selection here needs updating. That's an ongoing project. If you have suggestions for additions, send the citation in the format below to the website editor. Thanks!

Armstrong, J. G. a. R. J. L. (1990). Characteristics of patients with multiple personality and dissociative disorders on psychological testing. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 178, 448-454.

Baker, S. (1997). Dancing the dance with dissociatives: Some thoughts on countertransference, projective identification, and enactments in the treatment of dissociative disorders. Dissociation, 10(4), 214-223`.

Bernstein, E. M., Putnam, Frank W. (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 727-735.

Bernstein Carlson, E., & Putnam, F. W. (1993). An Update on the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Dissociation, 6(1), 16-27.

Blizard, Ruth. (1997). Therapeutic alliance with abuser alters in DID: the paradox of attachment to the abuser. Dissociation 10(4):246-254.

Bowman, ES. (1996). Delayed memories of child abuse; Part I: An overview of research findings on forgetting, remembering, and corroborating trauma. Dissociation 9:221-231.

Bowman ES (1996). Delayed memories of child abuse; Part II: An overview of research findings relevant to understanding their reliability and suggestibility. Dissociation 9:232-243.

Braun, B. G. (1988). The BASK model of dissociation. Dissociation, 1(1), 4-23.

Brenneis, C. B. (1996). Multiple Personality: Fantasy Proneness, Demand Characteristics, and Indirect Communication. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 13(3), 367-387.

Bromberg, P. M. (1998). Standing in the Spaces. Hillsdale, N.J.: The Analytic Press.

Brothers, D. (1995). Falling Backwards. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

Brown, D. P. F., Erika. (1986). Hypnotherapy and Hypnoanalysis. Hillsdale, N.J,: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Butler, L. D., et. al. (1996). Hypnotizability and traumatic experience: a diathesis-stress model of dissociative symptomatology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(7), 42-63.

Carlson, E. B., Putnam, F.W., Ross, C.A., Torem, M., Coons, P., Dill, D.L., Loewenstein, R.J., and Braun, B.G. (1993b). Validity of the Dissociative Experiences Scale in screening for multiple personality disorder: A multicenter study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1030-1036.

Carlson, E. B., and Putnam, Frank W. (1993a). An update on the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Dissociation, 6, 16-27.

Carlson, Eve B. & Putnam, Frank W. (1992). Manual for the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Beloit, WI: Available through the Sidran Foundation.

Caul, David (1988). Determining prognosis in the treatment of multiple personality disorder. Dissociation 1(2):

Chase, S. J. (1991). Hypnosis revisited: towards and integrated approach. International Review of Psychoanalysis, 18, 513-526.

Chefetz, R. A. (1997). Special case transference and countertransference in the treatment of dissociative identity disorder. Dissociation, 10(4), 255-265.

Chefetz, R. A. (2000). Affect dysregulation as a way of life. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 28(2), 289-303.

Chefetz, R. A. (2000). Disorder in the therapist's view of the self: working with the person with dissociative identity disorder. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 20(2), 305-329.

Chefetz, R. A. (2001). The fate of the self in dissociative identity disorder. KOS (in Italian)(191/192), 18-27.

Chu, James A (1998). Riding the therapeutic roller coaster: Stage-oriented treatment for survivors of child abuse. In: JA Chu. Rebuilding Shattered Lives. The Responsible Treatment of Complex Post Traumatic and Dissociative Disorders. New York: Wiley & Sons, pp.

Chu, James A. (1988). Ten traps for therapists in the treatment of trauma survivors. Dissociation 1:24-32.

Comer, R. J., Sartory, G., & Metsch, J. (1995). Klinische Psychologie. Berlin: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag.

Chu, JA (1998). Good fences make good neighbors: Establishing boundaries and setting limits. In JA Chu. Rebuilding Shattered Lives. The Responsible Treatment of Complex Post Traumatic and Dissociative Disorders. New York: Wiley & Sons, pp. 132-143.

Coe, W. C., Sarbin, Theodore R. (1991). Role theory: hypnosis from a dramturgical and narrational perspective. In S. J. Lynn, Rhue, Judith W. (Ed.), Theories of Hypnosis: Current Models and Perspectives (pp. 303-323). New York: The Guilford Press.

Coons, Philip M. & Milstein, Victor (1994). Factitious or malingered multiple personality disorder: eleven cases. Dissociation 7:81-85.

Coons, Philip M. (1984). The differential diagnosis of multiple personality disorder. A comprehensive review. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 7(1):51-67.

Coons, Philip M. & Milstein, Victor (1992). Psychogenic amnesia: A clinical investigation of 25 cases. Dissociation 5:73-79.

Coons, P. M., Bowman, E. S., & Milstein, V. (1988). Multiple personality disorder. A clinical investigation of 50 cases. J-Nerv-Ment-Dis, 176(9), 519-27 issn: 0022-3018.

Coons, Philip M. (1992). Dissociative disorder not otherwise specified: A clinical investigation of 50 cases with suggestions for typology and treatment. Dissociation 5(4):187-195.

Dickes, R., Papernik, Daniel S. (1977). Defensive alterations of consciousness: hypnoid states, sleep, and the dream. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 25, 635-654.


Dithrich, C. W. (1991). Pseudologia fantastica, dissociation, and potential space, in child treatment. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 72, 657-667.

Dunn, G. E., Paolo, A.M., Ryan, J.J., van Fleet, J.N. (1994). Belief in the existence of multiple personality disorder among psychologists and psychiatrists. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50(3), 454-457.

Dunn, G. E., Dunn, C. E., Ryan, J. J., & Van Fleet, J. N. (1998). Cultural differences on three measures of dissociation in a substance abuse population. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(8), 1109-1116.

Ellason Joan W. & Ross Colin A. (1997). Two-year follow-up of inpatients with dissociative identity disorders. Am. J. Psychiatry 154:832-839.

Fiedler, P., & Mundt, C. (1997). Dissoziative Stšrungen, vorgetŠuschte Stšrungen und Stšrungen der Impulskontrolle. In K. H. A. Ehlers (Ed.), EnzyklopŠdie der Psycholohie (pp. 355-436). Gšttingen: Hogrefe.

Fiedler, P. (1997). Dissoziative IdentitŠtsstšrung, multiple Persšnlichkeit und sexueller Mi§brauch in der Kindheit. In G. Amann & R. Wipplinger (Eds.), in Sexueller Mi§brauch. †berblick zu Forschung, Beratung und Therapie (pp. 217-234). TŸbingen: dgvt Verlag.

Fiedler, P. (1999). Dissoziative Stšrungen und Konversion. Weinheim: Beltz: Psychologie Verlags Union.

Fine, Catherine G. (1993). A tactical integrationalist perspective on the treatment of multiple personality disorder. In Clinical Perspective on Multiple Personality Disorder RP Kluft & CG Fine Eds. Washington: APA Press, pp 135-153.

Fine, Catherine G. (1991). Treatment stabilization and crisis prevention: pacing the treatment of the multiple personality disorder patient. Psych. Clin. N. Amer. 14(3):661-675.

Fine, Catherine G. (1988). Thoughts on the cognitive perceptual substrates of multiple personality disorder. Dissociation 1:5-10.

Fine, Catherine G. (1996). Models of helping. The role of responsibility. In Treating Dissociative Identity Disorder. James L. Spira, Ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp 81-98. [This discussion of four models of responsibility for illness and recovery is helpful for keeping perspective on the complexities of DID treatment.]

Fink, David (1991). The comorbidity of multiple personality disorder and DSM- III-R axis II disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 14(3):547-566.]

Franklin, Jean. (1990). The diagnosis of multiple personality disorder based on subtle dissociative signs. J. Nervous & Mental Disease 178:4-14.

Fraser, GA. (1991). The dissociative table technique: A strategy for working with ego states in dissociative disorders and ego-state therapy. Dissociation 4:205-213.

Freyd, Jennifer (1996). Betrayal trauma: Traumatic amnesia as an adaptive response to childhood abuse. Ethics and Behavior 4(4):307-329. [Also available in book Betrayal Trauma.]

Friedrich, W. N. (1994). Assessing children for the effects of sexual victimization. New Dir Ment Health Serv(64), 17-27.

Frischholz, E. J., Lipman, Laurie S., Braun, Bennet G., Sachs, Roberta G. (1992). Psychopathology, hypnotizability, and dissociation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 1521-1525.

Fromm, E. N., Michael R. (Ed.). (1992). Contemporary Hypnosis Research. New York: The Guilford Press.

Fromm, E. S., Ronald E. (Ed.). (1979). Hypnosis: Developments in research and new perspectives. New York: Aldine Publishing Co.

Fujji, Y., Suzuki, K., Sato, T., Murakami, Y., Takahashi, T. (1998). Multiple Personality Disorder in Japan. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 52, 299-302.

Gast, U., Oswald, T., & ZŸndorf, F. (1999). Strukturiertes Klinisches Interview fŸr DSM-IV- Dissoziative Stšrungen (SKID-D). Gšttingen: Hogrefe.

Gill, M. M., and Brenman, Margaret. (1959). Hypnosis and Related States: Psychoanalytic studies in regression. New York: International Universities Press, Inc.

Gleaves, D. H., Eberenz, K.P., Warner, M.S., Fine, C.G. (1995). Measuring Clinical and Non-Clinical Dissociation: A Comparison of the DES and the QED. Dissociation, 7(1).

Goldberg, A. (1999). Being of Two Minds: The vertical split in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. Hillsdale, N.J.: The Analytic Press.

Guntrip, H. (1969). Schizoid Phenomena, Object Relations and the Self. New York: International Universities Press, Inc.

Hammond, D. C., Garver, Richard B., Mutter, Charles B., Crasilneck, Harold B., Frischholz, Edward, Gravitz, Melvin, Hibler, Neil S., Olson, Jean, Scheflin, Alan, Spiegel, Herbert, Wester, William. (1994). Clinical Hypnosis and Memory: Guidelines for Clinicians and for Forensic Hypnosis: American Society of Clinical Hypnosis Press.

Hansen, C., Gold, S.N. (1997). Relations between the DES and the two MMPI-2 Dissociation scales. Dissociation, 10(1).

Herman, Judith Lewis (1992). A Healing Relationship. In Trauma and Recovery. Glenview, IL: Basic Books (Harper Collins), pp 133-154. [An invaluable discussion of the ways in which work wiht trauma patients affects therapists emotionally.]

Hilgard, E. R. (1986). Divided Consciousness: Multiple controls in human thought and action. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Hornstein NL & Putnam FW (1992). Clinical phenomenology of child and adolescent dissociative disorders. J Amer Acad Child & Adol Psychiatry 31:1077-1085. [Research data on 64 children and adolescents with DDNOS or DID.]

Howell, E. F. (1996). Dissociation in masochism and psychopathic sadism. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 32(3), 427-453.

Howell, E. F.  (2005). The Dissociative Mind . New York : The Analytic Press.

Howell, E. F. (2002). Back to the 'States': Victim and Abuser States in Borderline Personality Disorder. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 12 :6, 921-957.

Howell, E. F. (2002). "Good Girls," Sexy "Bad Girls," and Warriors: The Role of Trauma and Dissociation in the Creation and Reproduction of Gender,"Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 3 :4. 5-32. (Republished as lead article in J. A. Chu and E. S. Bowman, Ed. Trauma and Sexuality: The Effects of Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse on Sexual Identity and Behavior. Binghamton , NY : Haworth Medical Press, pp. 5-32.

Howell, E. F. (2003).  Narcissism, a Relational Aspect of Dissociation.   Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4 :3, 51-71.

Howell, E. F. (1996). Dissociation in Masochism and Psychopathic Sadism. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 32 : 3, 427-453.

Huber, M. (1995). Multiple Persšnlichkeiten. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Verlag.

Ijzendoorn, M. H., Schuengel, C. (1996). The measurement of dissociation in normal and clinical pouplations: Meta-analytic validation of the Dissociative Experiences scale (DES). Clinical Psychology Review, 16(5), 365-382.

Kemp, K., Gilbertson, A. D., & Torem, M. S. (1988). The differential diagnosis of multiple personality disorder from borderline personality disorder. Dissociation: Progress in the dissociative disorders, 1(4), 41-46.

Kemperman, I., Russ, M. J., & Shearin, E. (1997). Self-injurious behavior and mood regulation in borderline patients. J Personal Disord, 11(2), 146-57.

Kluft, Richard P. (1982). Varieties of hypnotic interventions in the treatment of multiple personality. Am J Clin Hypnosis 24:230-240. [Contains a variety of helpful examples of hypnotic imagery in DID treatment.]

Kluft, R. P. (1985). Childhood Antecedents of multiple personality disorder. Washington, DC: APA.

Kluft, Richard P. (1989). Playing for time: temporizing techniques in the treatment of multiple personality disorders. Am. J. Clin. Hypnosis 32:90-98.

Kluft, R. P. (1990). An abreactive technique. In D. C. Hammond (Ed.), Handbook of Hypnotic Suggestions and Metaphors. New York: W.W. Norton.

Kluft, RP. (1993) The initial stages of psychotherapy in the treatment of multiple personality disorder patients. Dissociation 6:145-161.

Kluft, Richard P. (1993). The treatment of dissociative disorder patients: an overview of discoveries, successes, and failures. Dissociation 6:87-101.

Kluft, Richard P. (1993). Clinical approaches to the integration of personalities. In: Clinical Perspectives on Multiple Personality Disorder. R.P. Kluft and C.G. Fine, Eds. Washington, D.C.: APA Press, pp 101-133. [Contains examples of integration rituals in treatment.]

Kluft, RP (1994). Clinical observations on the use of the CSDS dimensions of therapeutic movement instrument (DTMI). Dissociation 7:272-283.

Kluft, R. P. (2000). The Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy of Dissociative Identity Disorder in the Context of Trauma Therapy. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 20(2), 259-286.

Kluft, M.D., PH.D F.A.P.A. (2003). Current Issues in Dissociative Identity Disorder.

Kubie, L. S., and Margolin, S. (1944). The process of hypnotism and the nature of hypnotic state. American Journal of Psychiatry, 100, 611-622.

Lauscher, S., & Schulze, C. (1998). Schweregrad von sexuellem Mi§brauch und Langzeitfolgen. Zeitschrift fŸr klinische Psychologie, 27(3), 181-188.

Liotti, G. (1995). Disorganized/Disoriented attachment in the psychotherapy of the dissociative disorders. In S. Goldberg, Muir, Roy, Kerr, John (Ed.), Attachment Theory. Hillsdale, N.J.: The Analytic Press.

Liotti, G. (1999a). Disorganization of attachment as a model for understanding dissociative psychopathology. In J. a. G. Solomon, Carol (Ed.), Attachment Disorganization (pp. 291-317). New York: Guilford Press.

Liotti, G. (1999b). Understanding the dissociative processes: the contributions of attachment theory. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 19(5), 757-783.

Loewenstein, Richard J. (1991). Psychogenic amnesia and psychogenic fugue: A comprehensive review. In: Review of Psychiatry, Volume 10. A. Tasman & S.M. Goldfinger, Eds. Washington D.C.: APA Press, pp 189-222.

Loewenstein, R. J. (1991). An Office Mental Status Examination for Complex Chronic Dissociative Symptoms and Multiple Personality Disorder. In R. J. Loewenstein (Ed.), Psychiatric Clinics of North America (Vol. 14, pp. 567-604). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company.

Loewenstein, R. J. (1993). Post-traumatic and dissociative aspects of transference and countertransference in the treatment of multiple personality disorder. In R. P. Kluft, and Fine, Catherine (Ed.), Clinical Perspective on Multiple Personality Disorder (pp. 51-85). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.

Loewenstein, R. J. (1994). Diagnosis, epidemiology, clinical course, treatment, and cost effectiveness of treatment for dissociative disorders and multiple personality disorder: Report submitted to the Clinton administration task force on health care financing reform. Dissociation, 7(1), 3-11.

Loewenstein, Richard J. (1991). Rational psychopharmacology in the treatment of multiple personality disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 14(3):721-740.

Lynn, S. J. R., Judith W. (Ed.). (1991). Theories of Hypnosis: Current models and perspectives. New York: The Guilford Press.

Lynn, S. J. a. R., Judith W. (1988). Fantasy Proneness: Hypnosis, Developmental Antecedents, and Psychopathology. American Psychologist, 43, 35-40.

Lynn, S. J., & Rhue, J. W. (Eds.). (1994). Dissociation: Clinical and theoretical perspectives. New York: Gilford Press.

Mai, F. M. (1995). Psychiatrists' attitudes to multiple personality disorder: a questionaire study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 40(3), 154-157.

Main, M., Morgan, Hillary. (1996). Disorganization and disorientation in infant strange situation behavior: phenotypic resemblance to dissociative states. In L. K. Michelson, and Ray, William J. (Ed.), Handbook of Dissociation: Theoretical, Empirical, and Clinical Perspectives (pp. 107-138). New York: Plenum Press.

Maldonado, J. R., & Spiegel, D. (1998). Trauma, Dissociation, and Hypnotizability. In D. Bremner (Ed.), Trauma, Memory, and Dissociation.

Marmar, C., M. (1997). Trauma and Dissociation. PTSD Research Quarterly, Summer 1997.

Marmar, C. R., Weiss, D. S., Schlenger, W. E., Fairbank, J. A., Jordan, B. K., Kulka, R. A., & Hough, R. L. (1994). Peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress in male Vietnam theater veterans. Am J Psychiatry, 151(6), 902-7.

Marmer, S. J. (1996). An outline for psychoanalytical treatment. In J. L. Spira (Ed.), Treating Dissociative Identity Disorder (pp. 183-218). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Meares, R. (1999). The contribution of Hughlings Jackson to an understanding of dissociation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(12), 1850-1855.

Merskey, H. (1992). The manufacture of personalities: The production of Multiple Personality Disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 327-340.

Merskey, H. (1995). Multiple Personality Disorder and False Memory Syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 281-283.

Michelson, S., Ray, W.J. (Eds). (1996). Handbook of Dissociation: Theoretical, empirical and clinical perspectives. New York: Plenum Press.

Miller, S. D., & Triggiano, P. J. (1992). The psychophysiological investigation of multiple personality disorder: review and update. Am J Clin Hypn, 35(1), 47-61.

Miller, S. D., Blackburn, T., Scholes, G., White, G.L., Mamalis, N. (1991). Optical differences in multiple personality disorder: a second look. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 179(3), 132-135.

Modestin, J. (1992). Multiple personality disorder in Switzerland [see comments]. Am-J-Psychiatry, 149(1), 88-92 issn: 0002-953x.

Murburg, M. M. (Ed.). (1994). Catecholamine function in post-traumatic stress disorder. (Vol. 42). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.

Murray-Jobsis, J. (1988). Hypnosis as a function of adaptive regression and transference: an integrative theoretical model. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 30(4), 241-247.

Nijenhuis, E. R. S., Vanderlinden, J., Spinhoven, P. (1998). Animal defensive reactions as a model for trauma-induced dissociative reactions. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(2), 243-260.

Orne, M. T. (1959). The nature of hypnosis: Artifact and essence. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 277-299.

Paulsen, S. (1995). Eye Movement desensitization and reprocessing: Its cautious use in the dissociative disorders. Dissociation, VIII(1), 32-44.

Perry, B. D. (1999). The Memories of States - How the Brain Stores and Retrieves Traumatic Experience. In J. Goodwin & R. Attias (Eds.), Splintered Reflections - Images of the Body in Trauma (pp. 9-38). New York: Basic Books.

Phillips, M., and Frederick, Claire. (1995). Healing the Divided Self: Clinical and Ericksonian Hypnotherapy for Post-traumatic and Dissociative Conditions. New York: W. W. Norton.

Pope, Kenneth S. (1993). Memory, abuse and science. Questioning claims about the false memory syndrome epidemic. American Psychologist 51:957-974.

Putnam, F. W., Loewenstein, R.J. (1993). Treatment of multiple personality disorder: A survey of current practices. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150 (July 1993), 1048-1052.

Putnam, F. W., & Helmers, K. (1993). Development, Reliability, and validity of a child dissociation scale. Child Abuse & Neglect, 17, 731-741.

Putnam, F. W. (1997). Dissociation in Children and Adolescents. New York: The Guilford Press.

Putnam, F. W. (1989). Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder. New York: Guilford Press.

Putnam, F. W., Guroff J, Silberman E, et al. (1986). The clinical phenomenology of MPD: review of 100 recent cases. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 47, 285-293.

Putnam FW, Guroff J, Silberman E, et al. (1986). The clinical phenomenology of MPD: review of 100 recent cases. J. Clin. Psychiatry 47:285-293.

Putnam, F. W., Zahn, T.P, Post, R.M. (1989). Differential Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Multiple Personality Disorder. Psychiatry Research, 31, 251-260.

Ray, W. J. (1996). Dissociation in Normal Populations. In L. K. Michelson & W. J. Ray (Eds.), Handbook of Dissociation (pp. 51-66). New York: Plenum Press.

Ray, W. J., faith, M. (1995). Dissociative Experiences in a college age population: Follow-up with 1190 Subjects. Personality and Individual Differences, 18(2), 223-230.

Rhue, J. W. a. L., Steven J., et. al. (1993). Handbook of Clinical Hypnosis. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Ross, C. A. (1989b). Multiple Personality Disorder: Diagnosis, Clinical Features and Treatment. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Ross, C. A., Joshi, S., and Currie, R. (1990). Dissociative experiences in the general population. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 1547-1552.

Ross, C. A. (1991). High and low dissociators in a college student population. Dissociation: Progress in the dissociative disorders, 4(3), 147-151.

Ross, C. A., Heber, S., Norton, G.R., Anderson, D., Anderson, G., Barchet, P. (1989a). The dissociative disorders interview schedule: a structured interview. Dissociation, 2, 169-189.

Ross, C. A. (1997). The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule - DSM-IV Version. In C. A. Ross (Ed.), Dissociative Identity Disorder: Diagnosis, Clinical Features, and Treatment of Multiple Personality. 2nd Ed. (2nd ed., pp. 383-402). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Sanders, S. (1986). The Perceptual Alteration Scale: A Scale Measuring Dissociation. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 29(2).

Saxe, G. N., Vasile, R. G., Hill, T. C., Bloomingdale, K., & van der Kolk, B. A. (1992). SPECT Imaging and Multiple Personality Disorder. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180(10), 662-663.

Schwartz, H. L. (1994). From dissociation to negotiation: a relational psychoanalytic perspective on multiple personality disorder. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 11(2), 189-231.

Siegel, D. J. (1996). Dissociation, psychotherapy, and the cognitive sciences. In J. L. Spira (Ed.), Treating Dissociative Identity Disorder (pp. 39-79). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Silberg, J. L. (1996). The Dissociative Child: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management. Lutherville, Maryland: The Sidran Press.

Silberg, Joyanna L. (1996). Interviewing strategies for assessing dissociative disorders in children and adolescents. In The Dissociative Child. Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press, pp 47-68. [Detailed clinically oriented guide to interviewing children about dissociation.]

Simeon, D., Guralnik, O., Gross, S., Stein, D. J., Schmeidler, J., & Hollander, E. (1998). The detection and measurement of depersonalization disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis, 186(9), 536-42.

Simeon, D., Guralnik, O., Hazlett, E. A., Spiegel-Cohen, J., Hollander, E., & Buchsbaum, M. S. (2000). Feeling Unreal: A PET Study of Depersonalization Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(11), 1782-1788.

Simeon, Daphne, Gross S, Guralnik O, Stein DJ, Schmeidler J, Hollander E (1997). Feeling unreal: 30 cases of DSM-III-R depersonalization disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry154:1107-1113.

Simon, RI & Gutheil, TG. (1997). Ethical and clinical risk management principles in recovered memory cases: maintaining therapist neutrality. In: Trauma and Memory, PS Appelbaum, LA Uyehara, MR Elin, Eds. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, pp 477-495.

Singer, J. L. (Ed.). (1990). Repression and Dissociation: Implications for Personality Theory, Psychopathology, and Health. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Somer, E. (2006). Culture-Bound Dissociation: A Comparative Analysis. Psychiatric Clinics of North America , 29 (1), 213-226.

Smith, William (1996). The use of hypnosis in diagnosis and treatment. In: Treating Dissociative Identity Disorder. James L. Spira, Ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp 219-238.

Spanos, N. P. (1996). Multiple Identities & False Memories: A sociocognitive perspective. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Spanos, N. P. (1994). Multiple Identity enactments and multiple personality disorder: a sociocognitive perspective. Psychological bulletin, 116(1), 143-165.

Spiegel, H., and Spiegel, David. (1978). Trance and Treatment: Clinical uses of hypnosis. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.

Spiegel, D. (1994). Dissociation: Culture, Mind, and Body. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.

Spiegel, D. (1986). Dissociation, double binds, and post-traumatic stress in multiple personality disorder. In B. G. Braun (Ed.), Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder (pp. 1-29). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.

Spiegel, D., Kluft, R. P., Loewenstein, R. J., Nemiah, J. C., Putnam, F. W., & Steinberg, M. (1993). Dissociative Disorders: A clinical review. Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press.

Stechler, G., Kaplan, S. (1980). The development of the self: A psychoanalytic perspective. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 35, 85-105.

Steele, Katherine H. (1989). A model for abreaction with MPD and other dissociative disorders. Dissociation 2:151-159.

Steinberg, M., Cicchetti, D., Buchanan, J., Rakfeld, J., Rounsaville, B. (1994). Distinguishing between multiple personality disorder (Dissociative identity disorder) and schizophrenia using the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. The Journal of Nervous and Mental disease, 182(9), 495-502.

Steinberg, M. (1993). . Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press.

Steinberg, M. (1996). The Psychological Assessment of Dissociation. In L. K. Michelson & W. J. Ray (Eds.), Diagnostic Issues, Criteria, and Comorbidity of Dissociative Disorders (pp. 251-267). New York: Plenum Press.

Stern, D. (1997). Unformulated Experience: From Dissociation to Imagination in Psychoanalysis. Hillsdale, N.J.: The Analytic Press.

Teegen, F. (1997). Behandlung dissoziativer Symptome - Ein kognitiv.behavioraler Ansatz. In G. Amann & R. Wipplinger (Eds.), Sexueller Mi§brauch. †berblick zu Forschung, Beratung und Therapie. Ein Handbuch (pp. 537557). TŸbingen: dgut-Verlag.

Terr, Lenore (1988). What happens to early memories of trauma? A study of twenty children under age five at the time of documented traumatic events. J. Amer. Acad. Child & Adol. Psychiatry

Terr, L. C. (1991). Childhood Traumas: An Outline and Overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 10-19.

Torem, Moshe S. (1996). Medications in the treatment of dissociative identity disorder. In: Treating Dissociative Identity Disorder. James L. Spira, Ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp 99-132.

van der Hart, O., & Nijenhuis, E. (1995). Amnesie fŸr traumatische Erfahrungen. Hypnose und Kognition, 12(2), 84-101.

van der Kolk, BA (1996). Trauma and memory. In: Traumatic Stress. BA van der Kolk, AC McFarlane, L Weisaeth, eds. New York: Guilford, pp. 270-302.

van der Hart, O., van der Kolk, B. A., & Boon, S. (1998). Treatment of dissociative disorders.

van der Kolk, B., MacFarlane, Alexander, Weisaeth, Lars. (1996). Traumatic Stress. New York: Guilford Press.

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